Posts in Category: Inspiration

Lurpak makes food fun again

Be Wonderful and Wise – Lurpak® Lightest Spreadable

 

One of my coworkers shared this spot with me and I found it so inspiring. Not only will the narrating theme song catch you off guard but it will stick in your head for a long while. Just a warning. I think this is a perfect example of photography and editorial working in tandem to make something truly interesting. You have a wide mix of shots in different styles yet they all live in a close point of view, either of the food or of the cook. It feels much shorter than the 1 minute 10 second runtime and almost requires multiple viewings. Enjoy.

Spot Breakdown: “West Bank” for Sky TV

This is a slight deviation from the ongoing series of Feature Scene Breakdowns that I have neglected for the last six month or so. Being apart of the advertising industry now, I am finding myself much more attentive to the ad work that seems to assault me from every screen I own these days and I thought I should include it in this personal study. One huge upside of being within agency walls is a glorious room full of demo reels from over the years for Directors, Creative Editors, DP’s, FX Houses and even Catering companies (jokes). I have been trying to take advantage of that opportunity to study the work of the  advertising realm masters. It was in one of those reels that I discovered this little gem of a spot from New Zealand for the Sky TV news network.

“West Bank” was released in December of 2009. The agency was DDB, Auckland. The Director was Cole Webley, the Cinematographer was Travis Cline, and the Editor was Kim Bica out of Arcade Edit. For me, the beauty of the spot is in how much editorial had to play in its success, and how invisible that hand is. Invisibility has long been a description of the craft and of the editor’s role; which as of late has been changing with the new, MTV-influenced styles. In many programs, the editorial practice has become much more apparent to the viewer. Rather than seamless cuts that distract you from the fact that they are even happening, the jumpcut has certainly become a star player these days. “West Bank” is a very high energy spot that plays out entirely on a battlefield, and lends itself to a jumpcut style. The artistry is that most of the cuts, although jumpcuts by definition, are masterfully stitched together shots that appear to be continuous.

http://coldpost.tv/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Kim_Bica_Reel_SkyTV_Editors_Cut_webSM.mov

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1) I am a big fan of starting scenes focused on smaller details and then transitioning to wider shots that reveal the environment we’re in. I am seeing more and more of this approach these days in contrast to the old adage of always beginning with a wide shot and then moving into close shots. Here, we open on a close-up of running feet, with the sound effects cluing us into the battle going on around us. Initially, we don’t know how this character plays into the battle because all we see are civilian running shoes and jeans. It is not till he is fully exposed in the next couple shots that we understand he is a Palestinian guerilla. I love how they chose to start with the foot mid-stride and large in the frame. It instantly draws your eye and then pulls you into the shot as it moves into the run.


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2) Speaking of hidden cuts, I didn’t even catch this one until I started the writing process. I had already watched the spot numerous times and had even gone through it collecting stills, but didn’t snag this one until the actual breakdown began. The motion at the end of the first shot leads perfectly into this one. The feet are falling down in the frame as he jumps, revealing more of the body. When we cut to a shot of his torso in the same position and with the same relative size, even though things have changed a bit in the background, our brains fill in the gap that the camera kept tilting up to his torso. It helps that within 5 frames the talent runs out of frame and the camera has to catch back up to him. These types of cinematographic choices and the handheld style add quite a bit of energy to the entire spot, making it feel like an embedded photographer is capturing this battle. It’s possible that the editor used the same shot following this actor, but then cut out a second or two of the shot after the jump to condense the action. Right after the camera finishes panning back to the actor, we cut again.

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3) The cut point works so nicely because it happens 4 frames after the camera picks him back up and doesn’t allow us to settle in on the character. Just as we see his outfit it cuts to a slightly wider shot where we see him firing his rifle. The sound effects that correspond with him shooting were introduced at the end of the last shot. This overlap of audio is long standing trick to smooth out cuts and give the scene a genuine feel.

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4) We cut to a long shot of the ridge where the Palestinian was firing. We have lost the sound of the individual rifle fire and now hear men yelling and a machine gun off camera. We finally see the target, which is a soldier running across the ridge. The camera quickly starts zooming out and panning to the left, back towards where our Palestinian character was. As it zooms, there is another invisible cut I just picked up on as well. Part way through the whip pan, a cut is made to the next shot which is also mid whip. I never would have caught it if I wasn’t moving frame by frame and notice a shift.

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5) Continuing the whip pan from the last shot, the camera travels past a man with a molotov cocktail and stops on a crouching Palestinian, before reversing direction and returning to the man with the flaming bottle. It is a great example of using the documentary style camera, where the camera seems to search for subject matter rather than just hit preplanned marks. Within two frames of coming back to the molotov, we have another subtle cut.

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6) On frame by frame view this cut doesn’t work as well, there is is even a guy that pops up in the background of the new shot. But I have watched this over and over in realtime with no issues. It is just utter proof that continuity is not as important as we make it out to be most of the time. I can’t say at this stage of my career I would have had the confidence to make this choice as an editor, but I wish I was. The outgoing shot is still panning when the cut is made, the actor is standing in pretty much the same way, the framing is very very close, and as soon as the incoming shot starts the actor moves towards camera and starts his lines. All of these factors distract you from noticing that a cut has happened. Beautiful.

Glen Montgomery Avid Editor

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7) We get our first cutaway, of guerillas firing on the Israeli soldiers. It comes right on the talent’s line “Palestinians protested”.

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8) Returning to the shot on the Palestinian character’s face, he finishes his line then turns and throws the molotov cocktail. Just as he finishes his throw, the camera whips away from him as if the operator is covering himself from the explosion. The third photo below is the last frame before the cut point.



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9) This shot creates a wonderful bridge from the previous to the next; basically tying two different locations together and distracting us from the change. It starts out with a little camera move to the left and a dutch angle that seems to continue the camera movement at the end of the last shot. 4 frames in, an explosion comes from the lower left part of the frame and throws rubble in the opposite direction of the camera move. Just as the cloud of debris lessens, we cut away.

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10) The cut to this shot works similarly to the one from #6, the incoming shot is very similar to the last in terms of angle and the buildings in the background. The camera quickly moves in on the new talent, a different Palestinian guerrilla, who starts talking as soon as the shot begins. The camera finishes moving in close to the man, almost over his shoulder, as if the cameraman is taking cover alongside him. A couple seconds into the line, the camera starts to pan to the right and another hidden cut is made. The third still photo, below, is the last frame in this shot before the cut and you can compare it with the first incoming frame of the next.



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11) About five frames into the pan we cut to a different take of the same camera move that is in about the same spot. The new shot is much less smokey but has more dirt on the lens. Even though the two still-frames look quite different, you don’t really notice it at real time. Makes me really think about all the times I have fretted over minor continuity issues; wasting precious time that could have gone into story development. It does help that there are new characters firing rifles and a zooming, shaky camera to distract us from the cut. After a couple seconds on the 3 Palestinians, the camera pans back into an over-the-shoulder shot of our speaker, hidden behind the wall. The third still below is of the next transition point, mid dissolve.



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2) The transition point here is at about the same stage of the whip pan as the last cut, but this time there is a 4 or 5 frame dissolve blending the two shots together. It is mainly around the gun itself and the luminance of the sky that you can notice the dissolve happening but, as in most of the cuts, you don’t notice it in real time.

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13) This is one of my favorite cuts of the commercial. In the last shot the Palestinian fires two shots and then it seems that a snap zoom occurs, pushing into a closer over the shoulder as he fires again. What actually happens is there’s a cut to a different shot that is in the process of zooming in on the rifle’s perspective and then past the rifle into the background. The fact that the second shot is zooming like that makes it feel more organic to me, as if it was done in camera than a cut to a closer shot. Another element it adds is a quick glimpse of a person scrambling in the background as he is fired upon. It is a small point but I think it adds a human element to a group of shots where the Guerillas are mostly firing off camera or into clouds of smoke and dust. We see again that they are firing at other people by actually seeing those other people, even if just for a second.

Colorado Editor Glen Montgomery

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14) A series of gunshot sound effects leads us into a different scene on the battlefield. They sound very different than the gunshots we heard from the last rifle and the first one overlaps the cut, bridging the two visuals with an audio cue. We see two Israeli soldiers being fired upon. As bullets hit around them, one begins running while the other fires back and the camera moves in on the one running. This movement initiates the cut.

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15) In a low-angle close-up, similar to the first shot of the commercial, we get a quick shot of the soldier’s boots as he is running. It is only about a second long, but adds a gritty quality and keeps with the breakneck pace of the spot.

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16) Jumping ahead a bit in time and space, the running soldier is now closing in on a fellow soldier against a wall as it explodes in front of them. This explosion is going to be the transitionary element to the next scene.

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17) In a new shot, the perspective shifts from third person to the running soldier’s POV. We see the explosion in front of us, debris covering the frame. The camera rocks to the right as it’s hit by the blast and then comes down on some burnt out rubble at the base of the explosion. The sound design helps push this POV with a dull ringing tone that stays over the next 4 shots; the result of the blast on the soldier’s ears.


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18) We get an ultra quick, 7 frame shot of a injured man on the ground being dragged by a fellow soldier. I don’t know if he is supposed to be the guy who was running or if he is just one of the casualties of the explosion, but my take is he’s the runner. This is not one of the more invisible edits but rather a jump in space so I don’t think it’s a continuation of the real time feel that has been established. Instead, I think we are picking up a little later in time, from a different perspective.

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19) Cut to a profile shot of of a running soldier silhouetted against a smoke cloud. In the previous shot the camera was moving in quickly, which cuts well into this one with a lot of motion, and leads well into the next shot, which is a continuation of #18.

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20) Now we have a speed ramp of shot #18, following the running solder to the injured one. I think #18 was a different take than this one in which the editor used a later section of the shot, where this running soldier had already passed the wounded Israeli. This shot starts with the runner further back and plays around 4 times speed (best guess, don’t hold me to this) until he passes the injured man and then the clip ramps down to normal speed. We land in a close up on the injured soldier, who is our next speaking talent. Complimenting the speed effect is a deep, windy sound effect. It is higher pitched during the fast run and then lowers to a rumble as the soldier begins to talk. Conferring with my suitemate, Wayde Samuel, about how to describe it, he theorized that it might be a bass drum hit that was sped up to get the initial wind sound then brought back down to regular speed and possible reversed. Either way it is more proof that sound designers are freaking badasses.


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21) After he says his line “A dozen Palestinians have…” we cut to another location where an Israeli soldier is firing his rifle in an over-the-shoulder shot. It is one of only a few departures from the style of the spot, where we see cutaways from different aspects of the battle. It does seem very fitting that this line of dialogue finishes on the cutaway with “been killed”.

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22) As a follow up to that line, we cut from the soldier to his POV and the Palestinians he is shooting at. We begin to hear another line of dialogue, “while two…”, as the guerillas return fire.

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23) The line is finished by a new speaker, the soldier dragging the injured one; revealed in a new close up. When he is done he leans down and lowers his head; the movement initiating the final cut.

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24) We jump to a medium shot behind the soldiers. It’s the most jarring cut in the program, but purposeful. After all the invisible edits and quick cutting so far, it seems very appropriate that we have a cut that calls a little bit more attention to itself and a long 6 second final shot. Right after the cut the camera quickly moves backwards, letting the soldiers fall off into the background as a series of supers type on and the SKY TV logo comes up.



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I have to say, after spending so much time with this spot I am really looking forward to working on something that lends itself to this type of hidden editing. Usually, shaky cam isn’t something I gravitate to, but it presents the kind of happy accidents that can make for some beautiful stitching. If you think of any other examples of this style, or anything else you think I should check out for that matter, please add to the comments below.

Waiting and Preparation for the Producer and beyond

 

Last week my boss and Director of Integrated Production here at Crispin Porter + Bogusky, David Rolfe, shared a reflection with our team that was too good not to share. It deals with preparedness in producing, but has such cross-over goodness for editors as well. Usually the producer is our closest companion and strongest champion in the work we do, and I know that my projects would never have reached the point they do without the diligence and support of Gina Vorman, who I have to give a shout out to as we have collaborated on 8 projects here together. We share in the same periods of waiting that the producers do and we can be just as involved in the acts of preparation. As in chess, we should be looking 6 moves ahead and solving problems before they ever occur. Here is what Dave shared with us.

 

I’m not sure waiting should exist, in producing. There is no real room for it. We don’t have time to wait and producers are not waiters. If a situation is coming forth that smells of waiting, then counter it by planning. Why do we wait? We wait for feedback. We wait for “approval process.” And we can feel not in control. Take control. Take time that could be passive and set a course. Fill the encroaching vacuum with preparation for when there is movement (approval, non-approval, feedback, course)- this can be one of the most enjoyable things to do as a producer, a form of invention: we take course A if this happens, course B if this comes up, course C if we need to do this. BUT MOST IMPORTANT IS TO REALIZE THAT YOU ARE GOING TO MOVE, IF YOU KNOW THIS AND MOREOVER WHEN YOU ARE GOING TO MOVE, THAT’S WHAT WILL CONVERT WHAT COULD BE “WAITING” IN TO PREPARATION.

Then, per moving and action, if you find a situation where you have to reverse your direction, then do it. Speak to what needs to be done (calmly and confidently) and be confident that things will proceed. But don’t regret this, don’t let others affect you that production has put us in a bind. This is the brilliance of producing- you are never off your toes, your job is so simple in that you are naturally on your toes (you’re the only ones), and that’s all that needs to be done (that’s all you can do).

You will be great because of your reaction and planning skills, NOT because a project went perfectly or formulaically. And others indeed dictate what happens, but you control the elements. ALWAYS.

Hanes makes me fear children, even more

This is a downright hilarious new commercial from Hanes. It seems Cronenberg’s Brood wants us to use recycled goods.

Heineken Opens Doors

I saw the 30 second cut of this the other morning in the gym and totally fell for it. Not only has the song haunted me since I heard it but the 1:30 cut has so much more detail. It is quirky as hell and has some great scene transitions. I want to be this guy.

A Beautiful Reversal by Amnesty International

I am just floored by this video.

Scene Breakdown: Empire Strikes Back part 1

This breakdown is dedicated to Irvin Kershner, who passed away on November 27th. I can’t say I am well versed at all in his work, other than RoboCop 2, which rocked my childhood socks; but he holds the distinction of directing probably my all time favorite film, Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. I had not planned to touch this flick for quite a while, due to how much it intimidates me as a fan, but Kershner’s unfortunate passing necessitated it. There has been a disturbance in the Force and he will be missed.

This movie consumed my young mind. At the time I had no real knowledge of filmmaking or film editing; I was going to be a fighter pilot. The first thing that enthralled me about the Star Wars trilogy were the awesome dog fighting sequences in each of the movies, with lightsaber duels and Princess Leia following close behind.

I am doing things a little different this time around. Rather than look at just one scene, I will be looking at the editing of a larger event; that being the Hoth Battle in the first third of the film. As a kid, it was my favorite part of Empire Strikes Back and of the three films; and even today the thing I would most like to do is battle AT-ATs from a snowspeeder. This type of analysis also gives me the chance to look at a bigger picture than the past breakdowns. Rather than going from shot to shot, I can look at how the many scenes that make up this event are handled. With so many characters in different places and so much action taking place on all fronts, I really wanted to see how the editor juggled the parallel storylines. Most of my analysis is from a film editorial perspective but there will certainly be comments that deal more with directing and the other disciplines. First, I have to give credit where credit is due.

Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back was released theatrically on May 21, 1980. The director was the late Irvin Kershner, the Film Editor was Paul Hirsch, and the Cinematographer was Peter Suschitzky. I begin the breakdown as the Imperial forces are about to attack the Rebel Base. The battle starts at the 24-minute mark and is just over 12 minutes long.

01) We start in the rebel base hangar, where Princess Leia is prepping a group of pilots. This scene is an exposition on what is about to happen with the fleeing Rebel transport ships. The scene ends on an upbeat note as the brave pilots disperse. The encouraging music changes to that of tension on the cut.

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02) Now outside the base, we see 15 seconds of Rebel ground troops preparing for an invasion. As the soldiers set up their defenses, the commander scans the horizon multiple times but never picks up anything. The ominous yet quiet music compliments the nervous feeling of the rebels awaiting the attack. The last shot of the scene is of another soldier looking through binoculars and behind him is the open base hangar. It is a subtle detail but the background softens the transition to the following scene, which is inside the base. Throughout this battle there are shot decisions like this that lead us in and out of scene transitions.

 

Glen Montgomery Film Editor


03) Inside the Rebel command room, the General says, “prepare to open shields”. With a quick sound effect we cut away.

 

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04) From above the base we see the first group of Rebel ships race towards camera. As soon as the last ship passes us and leaves frame we cut to outer space.

 


05) We see the Imperial Star Destroyer orbiting the planet, waiting outside the shield for fleeing Rebels. As soon as we cut to this shot, the menacing music of the Imperial March comes up. This is a quick establishing shot for the following shot inside the enemy ship.

 


06) On deck in the Star Destroyer, the admiral is informed of the incoming Rebel ships. If we backtrack we can see how we were led to this new perspective on the battle. We started in the rebel base and by a line of dialogue were led outside the base, where the rebel ships led us into space to see the Star Destroyer, which we went inside of. Not all the character perspective shifts during this battle have this type of development, but they happen quite a bit.

 


07) We cut back to the Rebel command room, where they order the Ion cannon to be fired.

 


08) Outside the Rebel base we see the cannon fire and the blast lead us through the next couple shots. As soon as the second beam leaves frame we cut to the shot of the Rebel ships flying towards camera. We see the beams pass the ships and as they leave frame we cut again.

 

 


09) In a new 3/4 view, the Rebel ship are now flying away from camera and the laser beams pass the ships and hit the Star Destroyer blocking their path. The next couple shots show the Rebel ships escape past the incapacitated Star Destroyer. Except for going into the Star Destroyer, this shot progression was just like the last where we follow the laser beam from ground to space.

 


10) We cut to the hangar in the Rebel base where pilots and ground support troops are running around. We hear an off screen intercom announce, “The first transport is away”. There is a great cheer from the rebels for their first victory. In the bustling crowd we make out one of our main characters, Luke Skywalker, who is running towards his ship. The camera follows him as he climbs up and gets into the cockpit. After a quick exchange with his gunner, they begin takeoff and lead us to another outside scene.

 

 

 


11) Returning to the horizon shot of the icy battlefield, we see dark specks off in the distance. The Rebel infantry gets into their trenches and we cut to a POV of the officer’s binoculars. In it we see a group of large Imperial AT-AT armored vehicles. Over the loud rumble of their movement the officer starts to relay the news to the base. His message is the transition that leads us inside the base.

 

 


12) Now inside we hear the rest of the message over the intercom, “we have spotted Imperial Walkers on the first ridge”. In this new shot we see another character, the droid R2-D2, with snow falling down on him from the vibrations of the Walkers. This little shot gives us a bridge from the outside to the following montage of pilots leaving the hangar in their snowspeeders. The audio leads us from the events taking place outside and initiates the action inside while we catch up with one of the main characters passing through. In a hectic action scene such as this, these little bridges help in keeping track of where the characters are while propelling the plot.

 

 


13) We cut back outside to the first real shot of the incoming Walkers. They begin to fire on the base and as the first laser beam leaves left of frame we cut to the rebel troops taking damage. If you notice throughout this battle both on Hoth and in space, the Rebels are always attacking from the left and the Imperials are always attacking from the right.

 

 


14) As the ground troops are being ravaged, we move to the air, inside Luke’s Snowspeeder and he relays that air support is on its way. We see the Snowspeeders for the first time from the outside as they fly over the ground forces and approach the Walkers. We spend 35-seconds in aerial combat. The camera is always focused on a snowspeeder or inside the cockpit looking out.

 

 


15) To transition back to the ground battle, the editor cuts to a shot of the Walkers from the ground with the Snowspeeders flying past. It still has the flight elements but instead of following the Snowspeeders it is focused on the Walkers. From this transitional shot, we begin to see more of the Rebel ground forces taking fire and then more shots of Walkers firing. At this point the tide of battle is changing back to the Imperials. We started off with Walkers attacking, then the Snowspeeders flew in and attacked, and it is back to the Walkers’ next push for 11 seconds.

 

 

 

 

 


16) Here we have another character perspective shift like the one earlier in space. From a wide shot of one of the Walkers, we go to a brand new shot of the cockpit of the Walker. The first sign that this is initiating a change of pace is that it is a much closer framing than anything we have seen so far, and the second sign is that its eyeline is much closer to the camera than any of the shots so far. From this shot we get to move inside of the Walker to view the battle from the Imperial commander’s perspective. At this point the Walkers have the upper hand so it makes sense to be inside with them. Now we have a 3 shot transition back to Luke’s Snowspeeder. It starts inside the Walker’s POV as Luke flies toward it, then cuts to outside the Walker where you see the Snowspeeder streak by, then finishes back in the Cockpit with Luke.

 

 

 

 


17) Luke lets us know that the Walker’s armor is too strong for blasters. The tide of battle changes again with the perspective change back to the Rebel pilots as Luke suggests they use their tow cables to trip the walkers. But as he goes in to attempt it, his gunner is taken out by incoming fire.

 


18) Again we transition away from the moving aerial shots to a static ground shot of the Walkers. For the next 10 seconds we have another collection of shots of the Rebels taking fire.

 

 

 


19) Now we initiate another perspective shift to the adversaries with a new close up of one of the Rebel’s laser cannons. Interesting that, like what happened before in space, we will be following a laser blast. The cannon fires and then we cut to a new shot of the Walkers with the beam hitting one. As with the last time we shifted to the Imperial perspective, the eyeline of the Walkers in this second shot is much closer that usual. We return to the POV from within the Walker as Darth Vader contacts the commander. He informs Vader that they have reached the Rebel’s main power generators.

 

 

 

 


20) Here we have an inconsistent hard cut to another aspect of the battle, back in the air with the Rebel Snowspeeders. Luke informs another pilot, Wedge, that he has lost his gunner and that Wedge must take a shot. Wedge wraps up the Walker’s legs in his tow cable and trips it. Once it has fallen and is immobilized the fighters are able to blow it up. This aerial attack takes almost a full minute and is the longest part of the battle so far. After numerous perspective shifts lasting in the 15-second range, we spend the most time on the first, big Rebel victory in the Hoth Battle.

 

 

 

 


This seems to be a good spot to separate the breakdown. The first Walker is down and it looks like the tide has shifted to the Rebels at last. But it’s not over yet. Catch the thrilling finale as soon as I can get it finished. As always, please add more insight in the comment section below. May the force be with you!

Check out the rest of this analysis at Scene Breakdown: Empire Strikes Back part 2

Victoria’s Secret rocks the holiday spirit

Its hard not be a fan of girls in lingerie, so here is an early Christmas present. I am a bigger fan of well cut spots, and this one is an excellent example of that too. These day most high end commercials are mostly CGI or insane motion graphics, but this one goes back to the basics in a beautiful way. Other than the art cards that have a nice blue sparkle touch going on, there are very few effects involved. It is all cuts, dissolves, fades, and a couple luma flashes timed magnificently to the rock, break beat soundtrack. Enjoy, and maybe buy your lady, or yourself, something special this holiday season.

Scene Breakdown: Blue Velvet

I knew I would get to this movie eventually, but initially I had a different scene planned. Recently, I got to see a screening of Blue Velvet at the Starz Filmcenter and my intentions changed. Part of it was the other scene, upon further review, carried more of a performance punch rather than an editorial one; and I think part of it was that my sensibilities have changed a bit in the time since I last saw the film a couple years ago.

David Lynch’s work holds a special place in my film vernacular, and led me to his stylistic counterparts Brian De Palma and David Cronenberg, who have also become favorites of mine. Blue Velvet is a “surrealist mystery”, as many film historians have deemed it, but I’m drawn to the dark, twisted intrigue of the classic thriller. It starts with a college boy, Jeffrey, who while visiting home finds a severed ear that leads him down a dangerous road of sex and violence. Ok, so sorry for the cheesy ass synopsis. Most of my analysis is from a film editorial perspective but there will certainly be comments that deal more with directing and the other disciplines. First, I have to give credit where credit is due.

Blue Velvet was released in 1986. The writer and director was David Lynch, the Film Editor was Duwayne Dunham, and the Cinematographer was Frederick Elmes. This scene comes right before the climactic finale where Jeffery returns to the apartment that much of the mystery takes place in. The scene begins at the 1-hour, 46-minute, and 55 second mark and is just over 2 minutes long. As in previous posts, for a couple examples I used multiple screenshots over the length of one shot to show varying action and camera moves.

1) We start in the dark hallway outside of the apartment. Jeffery walks down the hallway towards the camera and the door to the apartment. Jeffery pauses at the door and looks down at the keys, taking a moment to collect himself. This moment gives us a chance to take in the sounds going on. One of the greatest qualities of Lynch’s films is the sound design; there always seem to be gorgeously creepy atmospheres established in the realm of sound. At this point, with the sound effects of footfalls and jingling keys halted; we hear a very low rhythmic tone coming in waves complimented with a much higher pitched steady tone much like electricity or cicadas. After the pause, Jeffery carefully unlocks the door and enters the apartment.

Glen Montgomery Colorado Video Editor

2) We have a matched action cut from inside the apartment now of Jeffery coming through the door. As he moves slowly into the room the high pitched hum gains in volume and pitch, adding to the tension.

Glen Montgomery Colorado Video Editor

3) Still in the same medium shot, Jeffery continues entering the room and as he looks around the corner, sees something and jumps back behind the wall. We don’t know what he saw, and rather than cut away we stay on Jeffery as he hides behind the wall. The editor could have done this sequence a couple different ways with different emotional responses. He could have had Jeffery start looking into the room, cut to what he is seeing, then cut back to Jeffery’s reaction or he could have shown Jeffery’s scared reaction then quickly cut to what he is looking at. Instead he holds on Jeffery without revealing what scared him. Now our imagination starts to run, wondering what horrific sight could have made him leap back like that. We stay on this shot for another 10 seconds after Jeffery reacts; seeing him cower and then inch his way back to look around the corner. Just as the light from the living room hits his face, we finally cut to what he is seeing.

Glen Montgomery Colorado Video Editor

4) In a wide shot of the living room, we see what scared him. There is one dead man tied to a chair and another man who has obviously been shot in the head still standing. We hold on this for 6 seconds, giving us plenty of time to take in this disturbing scene.

Glen Montgomery Colorado Video Editor

5) In a new medium close up, showing much more of Jeffery’s face, he closes the door while maintaining his eyeline into the room. As the door shuts, the high pitched whine quiets down but is not completely removed. Over the next 22 seconds, he tiptoes into the room, always moving forward towards the camera, which is dollying back to keep the same medium close up framing. As he walks, he glances around the room, taking in what has happened here. This shot is all about his facial expressions. They are constantly transitioning between fear, shock, and confusion.

Glen Montgomery Denver Avid Video Editor

6) Jeffery and the camera finally come to a stop, still in the medium close up. Ever since he started walking, the high-pitched whine, which had quieted, has been slowly rising again in volume. At the end of the shot, he looks down and to his right. This movement initiates the cut, which will show us what he is looking at.

Glen Montgomery Denver Avid Video Editor

7) We cut to a medium shot of the lower half of the standing man in yellow, who is a dirty cop we learned of earlier, and a broken television. As we cut, the high-pitched sound increases quite a bit, hinting that this sound may be coming from the television or from the walkie-talkie in the man’s pocket.

Glen Montgomery Denver Avid Video Editor

8) The shot continues, with the camera tilts up to the head of the man in yellow. It appears he is still breathing, but has been lobotomized by a gunshot wound to the head. Once the camera stops tilting up, we hold on him for a beat before cutting away.

Glen Montgomery Denver Avid Video Editor

9) We return to the medium close up of Jeffery. His eye contact is still with the man in yellow. As we cut to him he looks to the right and we cut away again, following his gaze.

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10) In a medium shot, we see a bound and gagged man who has also been shot in the head.

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11) Back to Jeffery, who takes a deep breath in reaction. This scene is all about Jeffery, so we are seeing a lot of his reaction shots as he examines the crime scene. Also this scene is based on tension, so is slower cut with a more shots to draw out the suspense. We could have removed this shot and gone to the next but by including this one we get an extra beat and an extension of the dread he is feeling.

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12) Following along with Jeffery’s increasing focus on the details, we go to an extreme close up of the seated corpse. The shot starts on the man’s mouth, which is stuffed with a piece of blue velvet. If you haven’t seen the movie, well first go out and see it, but if you haven’t then you need to know that blue velvet is a key story element in the film and the song is sung numerous times throughout. After a moment, the shot tilts up slowly into a gorgeous composed shot of both the bullet hole and the results of a severed ear. In this moment we understand who this man is. He is the kidnapped husband of one of the main characters. The whole mystery began when Jeffery found the ear in a park at the beginning of the film and now he has finally found the ear’s owner, but unfortunately it is too late. After the camera comes to a stop, we hold on this for 3 seconds to allow for the realization to settle in.

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13) We return to another reaction of Jeffery, as he is forming the same conclusion we just did in regards to the man’s identity. What comes next is the greatest scare of the movie. We have been lulled into this trap with long, slow shots with very little movement or sound, other than the incessant drone in the background of course. As I brought up in the Dark Knight scene breakdown, all good scares are dependant on strong audio cues. This one begins with an audio cue in this shot and overlaps into the next to finish with the visual scare. From the pocket of the man in yellow we hear the loud hiss of the walkie-talkie and the words “Get back”. In the same moment that we as the audience jump; Jeffery jumps back as well. His reaction takes 8 frames and then we cut.

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14) Now, back in the wide shot from behind Jeffery, we hear the rest of the line from the walkie-talkie, “and stay down.” At the same time, the arm of the man in yellow spasms and knocks the shade off the lamp next to him. It is hard to say in written words how much this scare has gotten me each time I have viewed it. Even in reviewing the cuts for this breakdown it got me, and I completely knew it was coming. It works in a duel way because of the way the audio leads us into the visual cue; but even more so, it succeeds because so much effort was invested into the lead up. All the long shots hanging on Jeffery as he moved about the apartment, the slow camera moves, and especially the sound design got us keyed up so that when the scare came it worked magnificently. We hang on the shot as Jeffery leaps back and then settles himself. The next line begins over the walkie-talkie, “It’s Frank Booth, apartment 26.” Frank is the villain of the film and it seems the police are about to raid his place. As soon as the line finishes, we cut.

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15) In his medium close up, Jeffery is still a little shaken up. The walkie-talkie transmits again with, “Lieutenant, we’re at Frank’s place now. The raid has commenced as scheduled.” Over the course of the message, Jeffery inches forward again, his eyes flicking between the man head and the walkie-talkie in his pocket. By the time it finishes, he seems to have regained his composure. As the line finishes there is a beat where he is steadily looking down towards the walkie-talkie and soundtrack music begins to fade in. After the beat he looks up, initiating the cut. This shot last for 11 seconds.

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16) Back on the medium close up of the bloodied head of the man in yellow, we hear over the walkie-talkie, “Stay in place.”

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17) In Jeffery’s medium close up, he looks from the man’s head down to his pocket again. The music is now at full volume, and as we cut to this shot the vocals of the song begin.

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18) We cut back in the shot of the broken television and the walkie-talkie in the pocket. We hear static coming from it, but no words are being said. This is an excellent vehicle for getting us to the following scene. By looking at the device and the audio coming from it, we instinctively want to know what is happening in that other place, and will be rewarded by transitioning to that event.

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19) Now we are in the next scene, where the police raid is about to begin.

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Scene Breakdown: Mad Men “Maidenform”

So I diverted from my plan a little with this post. In the last entry, I proposed that I would continue with the feature film breakdowns for a while before going to other mediums; but I lied. This week I was deep into a marathon of the second season of the exquisite AMC show, Mad Men, when one of the episodes jumped out as an excellent candidate for a breakdown. This breakdown is quite different as well, in that it looks at the opening and closing scenes of the episode. The beginning is a great little montage that really sets up the first dialogue scene perfectly and the ending is a beautiful capstone to all the story points covered in the episode. Even though they don’t directly reference each other I had to include both of them in this breakdown. Both scenes have my favorite characteristics of good storytelling; they draw you in and they stay with you after they have passed. Most of my analysis is from a film editorial perspective but there will certainly be comments that deal more with directing and the other disciplines. First, I have to give credit where credit is due.

Mad Men is a dramatic series created and produced by Matthew Weiner; following the inner workings of an ad agency set in the 1960’s. It premiered on July 19, 2007 on the AMC cable channel and has since cleaned up on the awards circuit, garnering numerous Emmy and Golden Globe awards. The episode I chose to look at is “Maidenform”. The Director of the episode was Phil Abraham, the Editor was Cindy Mollo, and the Cinematographer was Chris Manley. The first scene begins at the 37-second mark and is 1-minute long. The final scene begins at the 45-minute, 35-second mark and is 1-minute, 40-seconds long. As in previous posts, for a couple examples I used multiple screenshots over the length of one shot to show varying action and camera moves.

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1) To begin we cut from black. The song “The Infanta” by the The Decemerists starts playing instantly, also cutting on rather than fading in. The opening line in the song we hear is, “Here she comes”, then the guitar and drums slam in. It is quite appropriate to this montage, which involves the 3 main female characters in the show and serves the study in female strength that this episode deals with. From black, we are in a shot tracking to the left while also panning right to left. We move along a bed in a medium shot; 2-frames in, a woman’s arms and back appear. She is just finishing up putting on her undergarments.

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2) The frame moves up, showing the back of her head, and then to reveal a medium shot of her reflection in the mirror she is looking at. The camera stops panning and moves slowly in on the image as the camera switches focus to the reflection. It is Betty Draper, wife of the show’s main character, Don Draper.

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3) While still moving towards the mirror, the camera begins panning to the right and shifts focus to the actual Betty Draper, resulting in a medium close up of her profile. The camera continues to move around her, revealing more of her face as she evaluates herself. The camera move does all of the cutting for us and is actually 3-shots in 1. We started on her back, then saw her face in the mirror, then finished in shot of her actual face. In addition, the shot’s design is amazingly constructed in how it moves our eye across the frame. Initially, we watch the left side as her back comes in and follow it to the right as it moves past. Our eyes then flick to the left once her reflection comes into view. As the camera finally goes to her profile shot, we move back to the right side of the screen. It adds even more interest to this 16-second long shot that doesn’t feel even close to that long.

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4) Just as Betty begins a big inhale, the picture starts to dissolve. At the same moment the dissolve begins, there is a long cymbal crash in the music that goes smashingly with the transition. This is a 40-frame dissolve and is excellently composed. If you notice, Betty is on the right side of the frame while the image of the incoming character is on the left side of the frame. The incoming shot is tilting up across another woman’s dresser.

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5) Now fully dissolved into the new shot, we finish tilting up in a medium over the shoulder shot of Joan Holloway’s mirror reflection. She pulls an undershirt over her head, gives herself a final look, and turns away from the mirror.

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6) Joan turns and leaves the left side of the frame. The camera follows her reflection on the right and pushes into a new medium shot.

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7) Joan, now on the left side of frame, reaches down to the bed and, as she picks up a hangar, we begin to dissolve again. This is another 40-frame dissolve, but this time the outgoing image is on the alternate side of the frame.

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8) We are now in another tracking shot of a bed, with the camera panning left again. A third woman’s back appears in medium close up, also in her underwear. Getting a connection, yet? This woman is sitting on her bed and putting on stockings. The camera pans left until it settles on her outstretched leg, then stays on the leg as camera continues tracking to reveal more of her body in profile.

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9) The woman stands up to finish pulling up her pantyhose, which the camera catches as it pans back to her waist after she lowered he legs. As in the last 2 shots, much of what would be expressed by cutting between various shots of the setting is done through very well crafted camera moves. The editing in this is knowing when to start and stop showing these magnificent shots, and making them creep through each other with impeccably timed dissolves. You could have had cuts between these 3 shots, but the dissolves truly compliment the ever-moving camera. Cuts would have brought too much attention to the changing direction of the moves while the dissolves let them flow into each other.

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10) The camera continues to move, this time tilting up to reveal the face of our third main female character, Peggy Olson. At the same time the camera finishes its tilt, it also finishes tracking; and is now still for the first time so far. Peggy then begins walking left and out of frame.

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11) Just as she starts walking, a final dissolve begins along with another long cymbal crash in the music. I may be seeing too much in these cymbal crashes, but they seem so perfectly placed I have to think they are there by design. The incoming image is a solid dark color and as we progress through yet another 40-frame dissolve, Peggy clears the frame and we realize it is an office desk.

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12) Just as the dissolve finishes a magazine slaps down on the desk for us to read. It is an advertisement for women’s bras. What a great lead up from this beautiful opener of women getting dressed. Just as the magazine comes to rest a beautiful audio cut goes with it. The music instantly vanishes as we hear a sound effect of paper slamming down and the violent ringing of office telephones. The shot hold for 3 seconds so were can read the ad’s copy, “I dreamed I stopped them in their tracks in my maidenform bra”. Well that edit decision stopped us in our tracks, for sure. After getting sucked into this slow, dreamy montage, we crash into the developing story at the ad agency with a quick movement and jarring audio transition. By dissolving from the last shot of Peggy into this mysterious desk shot, it is never given away that we have now moved out of the homes and into the office. Simply spectacular, and exactly why I had to include this scene with the breakdown to follow.

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So that was the opening scene. One where the editing took somewhat of a back seat to the direction and cinematography; but as always, still essential to the complete artistry of the scene. First we see the product being used in the home then quickly go to the other side of the coin in the office dealing with the product’s advertising. All the while building on the issues of those strong female characters using these products.

Now, the second part of this breakdown is the final scene involving the main male character, Don Draper. This episode has 2 main themes. For the females, it is one of empowerment in a very male oriented world. For the men, it is infidelity. 2 of the main male characters have flings in the episode. Don has been doing it throughout the series, but in this episode, his lover brings up in bed the fact that he has a reputation for it amongst a lot of women in town. He reacts poorly to it; I think for the first time realizing how much of a habitual cheater he is. I could go on and on trying to analyze this, but that’s not why we are here. Hopefully that is enough background to understand the weight of this final scene.

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13) I’ll start with the medium wide shot leading into the scene. Don has just gotten out of bed and is walking towards the bathroom.

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14) We have a jump cut into the bathroom where he is currently applying shaving cream to his face. It is a slight jump in time and space, but gives some separation from the scene that came before. A quick movement of the brush in his hand initiates the following cut.

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15) We cut to a wide shot from a low angle behind Don. I wouldn’t say it was a matched action cut because I don’t think he was about to lower his arm in the previous shot, but the quick hand motion leads nicely into this one where he brings his hand down from his face. After a second, his daughter walks into frame from behind the camera and moves towards the toilet. Just before the cut, there are a couple frames where she begins to turn to sit down on the toilet.

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16) In a medium shot, the daughter finishes sitting down and says, “Hey Daddy”. I would say this cut was much more of a matched action cut than the last cut I discussed; they certainly left out some frames on either side of the cut to speed up the daughter’s turn, and it works nicely. The camera height is closer to Don’s height than the daughter’s, as are most of the shots in this scene other than the low angle wide shot, so we know this scene is more about his perspective than anything.

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17) Back in his original medium close up, Don looks in her direction, acknowledging her presence, then turns back to the mirror and say, “Hey You”. The shot continues in silence, save for some brushing and clinking sound effects, for another 3 seconds as he finishes applying cream and reaches down to the sink.

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18) We get a quick cutaway to the daughter staring up at her father and smiling. My thought is that this is just a patch to cover a cut between two different takes.

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19) Returning to Don’s medium close up, he begins shaving. We overhear the daughter say, “I’m not going to talk. I don’t want you to cut yourself.” As she finishes the line, he turns his head to look down at her. Halfway into the turn we cut.

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20) We get about 2 seconds of the daughter just looking up and smiling. At this point the light sound of birds chirping starts up, which will continue into the following shot.

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21) In a new medium close up from more of the girl’s angle of view, we see Don look back at her lovingly. After a moment he turns back to the mirror with a smile. The sound of birds has increased quite a bit in this shot. This shot is very different in angle and composition from the ones we have seen repeated so far, so it stand out from the pack and makes us pay more attention to what’s following.

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22) We are back in the original medium close up after a matched action cut based on the movement of Don’s face and his lifting of the razor. This camera is already starting to push in when we cut to it, and moves in slowly throughout the shot. After a second the bird chirping sound effects fade away and we hear more of the scrape of the razor on his cheek. Don gives himself a more serious look, and as he slows and then stops shaving, a low, humming, rumbling sound fades in. I believe it comes from the musical instrument, the didjeridu, but not sure.

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23) As the sound swells, the camera keeps pushing closer and Don stares disgustingly at himself. He quickly looks down and the musical tone cuts out, replaced with the squeak of the faucet being turned and water flowing. There are so many hints within these last 2 shots to the importance of this moment to the character. The camera change utilized in the edit to bring our attention to this shot, the new camera movement within this shot, the quick change in acting, and the changes in sound design all wrapped together to empower this story point. This is the moment where a philandering husband may have just seen himself for who he really was. Wonderfully done.

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24) We cut back to the daughter’s medium shot. She now has a concerned look on her face as she asks, “Are you okay, Daddy?” There is a second of pause after her line before we cut back to him where all we hear is the loud flow of water.

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25) The camera has stopped moving now and we see Don’s face in this new close up in the mirror. He is still looking down, dazed, and after a long beat, tells his daughter that she should leave him alone. He takes a long pronounced swallow just before the cut.

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26) The daughter immediately looks away, dejected, and gets up to leave. Just as she is about to leave frame, we hear the squeak of the faucet again, the water stops, and we cut.

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27) In the first frame of the close up again, Don is looking himself in the eye with a toweled half raised to his face. He never breaks eye contact as he wipes his face. The next cut is initiated by the beginning of his body movement away from the mirror.

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28) We cut to the final shot of the episode as Don continues turning away from the mirror and sits down on the toilet.

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29) The camera follows Don down and begins slowly moving away from him. As the move starts we hear the chirping of birds again and somber music starts to fade in. Looking down he mulls over the thoughts going through his head. Just as the door frame is about to obscure him, he slowly looks up.

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30) The camera continues to move down the hallway away from the bathroom. Then on the opposite side of frame, Don’s reflection appears on a different mirror. After a couple seconds of seeing more of this reflection, we get a long fade to black before the end titles.

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This long, beautiful camera move sticks with us in its ability to further draw out this important moment in Don Draper’s life, as he begins to acknowledge his mistakes. I sat thinking about this ending well into the end credits, and in the same way I was enthralled by the introduction to the episode I sat contemplating the end. Both are great examples of storytelling, but in very different ways and with drastically different feelings other than being tied together by characters evaluating themselves in front of mirrors. Please add your take in the comments section or give me your suggestion of titles to study in the future.